Psychographic and Demographic Factors on Coffee Shop Green Purchase Intention

Psychographic and Demographic Factors on Coffee Shop Green Purchase Intention

Examining the Outcome of Psychographic and Demographic Factors on Coffee Shop Green Purchase Intention

Abstract

            Sustainable growth and environmental concern in modern civilization has influenced change in consumer behavior to ecological responsible purchase. Green marketing is the ecological and eco-friendly marketing of products with establishments committed to promoting, distributing, designing, and pricing without harming the environment. A coffee shop incorporates marketing tools in creating green purchase intention essential in developing bond between people and places. Psychographic factors such as social influence, environmental concerns, and personal norms with demographic aspects like gender, education level, age, and income level directly affect the coffee GPI determining its survival with competitors (Taufique, 2017). The drive of this paper is to determine psychographic and demographic factors affecting customers’ behavior in Coffee Shop GPI. The study reveals that the above stated psychographic factors impact the awareness and the behavior of purchasing to green foodstuffs. Moreover, the populace of female customers has more influence of buying green products than male consumers while the younger clients remain skeptical towards green products. Financially stable consumers expressed an increased intention to purchase green foodstuffs from coffee shops. In addition, the study offers in-depth analysis on the marketing of green coffee shop products and a contribution to existing literature about factors influencing the behavior towards purchasing green products. (Lucyna Witek, 2021)

Introduction

Research Background

            Green product markets are expanding rapidly in the global market due to the increase in environmental conscious decisions towards consumer products. Limited resources are available for sustainability of diverse life therefore, green living contributes to conservation of resources and reduction of environmental degradation. The development of corporate social responsibility has influenced businesses to create value for all stakeholders including purchasers. Purchasers are recognized as a significant group and are strategically placed at the beginning of an enterprise development process. Therefore, the consumers’ recognition on the importance of environmental conservation and its threats to the civilization has led to change of values, structure of needs and attitudes towards transformation of purchasing behavior. Purchase behavior entails choosing products in a way that satisfies the consumer needs, the emergence of awareness among consumers when making a purchase has increased devotion to the health, wellbeing, environment and quality. Coffee shop green products therefore, transform the economy towards sustainable development and protect the interests of current and forthcoming generations through environmental preservation (D. Zimon, 2020). Additionally, buyers with high levels of eco-friendly knowledge did not choose green products (J. Rokka, 2016). Therefore, this paper provides additional evidence to the existing literature on the consequences of psychographic and demographic aspects in understanding perception of coffee shop green products and green purchasing inconsistencies.

Problem statement

The worsening of the environment has led to the implementation and the growth of customers’ buying habits. The value action gap highlights where clients are environmentally concerned and experiencing interpretation hurdle when procuring beverages. Consumers utilize the products intending to contribute to the support of a sustainable environment and adhere to climate change guidelines. Beverage shops offer diverse means to sway environmentally sensitive consumers in shifting their attitudes from conventional to green products essential in satisfying their taste and preferences as a value proposition. When purchasing coffee, attributes such as convenience. The price, quality, and brand acquaintance facilitate one choice regardless of their attitude. This research paper will focus on the effect coffee shops face in their green purchasing intention to the named demographic and psychographic dissection precisely the eco-friendly marketing (S. Kushwah, 2019).

Research Objectives

            Core objective of the study was to regulate aspects that stimulate the purchasing of green products for the sustainability of the environment.

  • To evaluate the effects of demographic features on GPI
  • To determine effects of psychographic aspects on GPI

Research questions

The paper provides the answers to the following questions:

  1. How is the consumers’ behavior towards coffee shop green products influenced by psychographic and demographic factors?
  2. Who are the targets groups in context to coffee shop green products?
  3. What are psychographic and demographic features of coffee customers willing to purchase green products in coffee shops?
  4. What strategies should be incorporated in marketing green products by coffee shop companies, considering the consumer behavior factors towards these products?

Literature Review

The section contains a review of green products, psychographic and demographic aspects and their consequence on green purchase intention. Green products are in the rise in developing countries due to awareness among consumers that their purchasing intention influences environmental issues and growth of consumer behavior conscious to the ecology. Past literature and studies defined environmental apprehension as the main aspect influencing customer choice- making and a critical factor in establishment of a sustainable community (Bryla, 2016).

Green products and GPI

            Commission on world environment and development (WCED) organization describes maintainable development as developmental process which satisfies current consumer needs without compromising   the ability to satisfy the needs of future consumers and its generation. Moreover, to meet sustainable development requires the change in consumer behavior and readiness to buy premium green products. Green purchase intentions is the individual tendency to purchase green products or services over non-green products in the future purchase consideration. Purchasing green products has economic and environmental benefits such as: reduction in consumption of energy and water, improvement of efficient resource use, reduction of waste and waste disposal cost, reduction of the impact of product and services on the environment and the improvement of viability of products for recycling (P.P. Rogers, 2008). Empirical studies identify determinants such as, knowledge, values, needs, attitudes and demographics, influence green purchase (Bui, 2017).

 (Dahlstrom, 2017) Stated that, “Green products have greater likelihood of succeeding, however, when environmental benefits augment consumer value assessment.” Therefore, the importance to study the consequences of Psychographic and Demographic factors to determine effect of green purchase

 Consequence on Psychographic factors affecting GPI

Environmental concern

            Ecologically conscious decisions are related with environmental concern therefore, consumers choose less harmful products and natural resources. According to (S. Punitha, 2018), peoples concern on the protection of the environment leads to improved green purchase intention with the belief this behavior would improve the quality of the environment. However, environmental concern is a non-significant as it amounts to a lesser influence to the green purchase intention compared to other listed psychographic variables (Suki, 2017). The environmental awareness, beliefs and cultural values, and role of social platforms are motives for the spread of economic concern (Nath V., 2016).

Environmental knowledge

Environmental knowledge is the capability of a person to notice and define ecologically connected signs and symbols, behavior and concepts relating environmental problems (M. Laroche R. T., 2016). Environmental knowledge aids in making ecological conscious decisions among consumers therefore, influencing the consumers decision on purchase of green products.

Environmental attitude

Customers’ perceptions and predispositions to an item or knowledge is either favorable or unfavorable, is a major influencing factor on purchase intention thus coffee shops should accord the green products with the existing attitude patterns. Environmental attitude has revealed to be a strong factor towards environmental protection improving both consumer purchase on green products and sustainable consumption. Consumers that are keen to pay more for premium green foodstuffs can be predicted though attitudes as indicated by (M. Laroche B. J.-F., 2017).

Perceived customer effectiveness

Perceived customer efficiency is the extent to which the environment can be impacted by any one consumer (Gilg A., 2016). However, the effectiveness is affected by the difference in knowledge and life experiences from person to person.

Skepticism

Consumers’ doubt on the coffee shops environmental claim and distrust on the benefits of green products available leads to skeptics on purchase and consumption of the products. Skeptics are when individuals have disbelief and suspicion on the credibility of the green product or its usefulness in the environment as presented by (S.K. Goh, 2016). Additionally, consumers who are skeptic towards green products have low knowledge and concern about environmental issues. Sustainability efforts of farms to improve the trust towards brands did not have an impact on purchase intention. However, environmental concern and claims have become more acceptable compared to the last 20 years therefore, green advertising has proved to be trustworthy and reliable to consumers (S. Segev, 2016).

Social influence

Social influence defines the individuals’ process to adapt opinions, change behavior and revise their beliefs through social interactions with other individuals (Moussaïd M., 2016). Buying green products is as a result of group effect and the social values they hold therefore, a strong influence in sustainable consumption behavior. In India and Pakistan, for example, social value has an impact on purchase of green products due to consumers concern on social status and self-image (Khan S.N., 2017).

Personal norms

Personal norms refer to expectations held by individuals while underscoring that expectations are derived from shared social norms by (Schwartz, 2017). Personal norms influence the environmental behavior and green consumption habits. Individuals prioritize the choice of green products when they hold internally higher self-expectations towards the environment and impression of green goods to their well-being (Onel, 2017).

Demographic factors affecting the GPI

Gender

Green purchasing intentions depended on the consumers’ gender as it was demonstrated by (Fischer E., 2016) that, women’s sensitivity to environmental concern was linked their altruism and empathy more than men. Women show more interest in healthy living environment while men perceived the environment as a resource to be exploited. Women therefore, buy more green products and have greater knowledge of green food compared to men despite having no differences between the genders in regard to green purchase intention.

Age

Younger people contributed to higher consumption of green products compared to the average age of typical consumers. Additionally, younger people were concerned with sustainable development. Payment of higher prices for green products did not translate to increase in purchases frequency. (J.A. Ottoman, 2016) Research showed that people aged 30 to 44 years represented the majority group of green consumers. In conclusion, age partakes in influencing green purchase customer intention.

Educational Background

People with higher levels of education purchased green foodstuffs than those with a lesser level of education. Investigation in Lithuania indicated that customers with advanced levels of education were more sensitive by offering discernment towards environmental issues (Bui, 2017). Higher knowledge associated with higher education is responsible for a reasonable approach to sustainable resource consumption and purchase intentions that prioritize environmentally friendly products to resolve environmental threats and degradation (Fischer E., 2016).

Level of income

Personal financial situation correlates with the green purchase intention where by, high income earning individuals buy more green products and show concern for environmental issues than low-income buyers. Income of an individual had an influence on quantity of purchased green goods rather than the frequency of purchase. Income positively affects GPI due to the high cost of purchasing green products therefore, high income customers have enough money to pay for green foodstuffs (Boztepe, 2020).

Children

Individuals with children in their household exhibited intentions to buy green products due to health concerns and the need to practice environmentally friendly behavior. Studies by Laroche in North American city reported that married female with children in the household were enthusiastic to recompence more for green consumer goods (Lucyna Witek, 2021).

Hypotheses development

Environmental concern is apprehension about green products with motivated customers buying eco-friendly beverage goods and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Studies show that young and educated clients are concerned with protective programs and awareness creation on the wellbeing of the environment. Ecological acquisition behavior and attitudes have a motivating result on green purchase intent.

Hypothesis 1(H1). Ecological concern with constructive effect on the GPI among young, educated customers.

Personal norms can create predilection inducing some pro-environmental attitudes threatening individual values. Individuals can participate in energy-saving approaches to balance personal energy waste creating consequences such as power failure and global warming. Studies illustrate that persons with positive own norms favor obtaining ecofriendly foodstuffs or organic diets and contribute to recycling actions.

Hypothesis 2 (H2). Personal norm is positively related to pro-environmental attitudes of the clients’ GPI.

Social influence explains an individual’s adaptation to their opinions, behavioral change, and beliefs, emotions to societal setups. The collective uniqueness of society offers a behavior and an identity considered appropriate on ecological issues. Social dissemination influences the green purchasing intention to adopt a product in society. It’s essential in conveying data and triggering emotional responses to factors like social persuasion and modelling. Purchasing environmentally friendly goods influence a character’s adoptions.

Hypothesis 3 (H3). Social influence has an encouraging impact on customer’s procuring of GPI products.

Attitude is the evaluation of both negative and positive for relating consequences in behavioral purchasing of coffee. Attitude entails both functional and emotional factors. Research by Rezai, concludes that consumers’ attitude on functional foods is essential to their purchasing power of such products (Dahlstrom, 2017).

Hypothesis 4 (H4). Attitude towards purchasing functional foods related to GPI.

Young people exhibit environmentally friendly behaviors. Factors such as the price and positive attitude don’t influence the GPI. In research by Kaufmann, green consumers are people with older age groups (Boztepe, 2020).

Hypothesis 5a (H5a). Oldness has a bearing on the insolences towards the green procurement

Hypothesis 5b (H5b) Adult consumers have colossal communal pressure for acquiring green foodstuff.

Educated customers are susceptible to purchasing green products as they can discern environmental issues and act sensitively. Clients that hold social processes knowledge suggest a rational approach to supply feasting and running of households, obtaining adoptions on environmental issues. Eco-friendly knowledge is essential to positive effects on ecological consumption (Boztepe, 2020).

Hypothesis 6(H6). Schooling has an outcome on the shoppers’ green purchase purposes.

Green merchandise acquiring is heavily associated with consumers’ salary. Higher income consumers show deep concern by buying eco-friendly products. Income as a variable, result in a positive bearing on the number of green products purchases.

Hypothesis 7a (H7a). The healthier personal monetary condition, the superior consumers’ disposition payment for green foodstuffs.

Hypothesis 7b (H7b). An individual fiscal state has a bearing on the assessment of the customer’s acquaintance.

Tastes and preferences differ between men and women when making ecological conscious decision in purchase intention. The intention to purchase green products is inclined towards women consumers more than men due to increased concern among women on the importance environmental protection. Women believe the products are eco-friendly and they are enthusiastic to purchase at a high price for green products with the aim to protect the environment. Women are responsible for the decisions that involve purchase of consumer products in the household therefore, the concept of green purchasing indicates a self-identity among women towards environmental protection.

Demographic features
Occupation
Gender(sex)
Age group
Education
Revenue level
Ethnicity
Green Purchase Intention

Hypothesis 8(H8). Gender has a positive impact on consumers; choice in GPI.

Conceptual framework demonstration

Psychographic factors
product safety, product information and product availability
Ecological knowledge
Individualism plus collectivism
Environmental concern
Environmental insolence
Alleged consumer efficiency
Social Media influence
Personal standards
Skepticism

The conceptual framework above examines the relation between psychographic and demographic aspects impact on green purchase intention. Demographic aspects intercept between psychographic features and green purchase intention acting as moderators.

Methodology

A questionnaire method was used to collect data for the study thus a goal-directed sampling method used to include customers who exercise a green lifestyle. The review method used is to inspect the influence of Demographic and Psychographic Features of Coffee Shop Green Purchase Intention. Consumer data was collected through online questionnaire-based survey prior to developed literature from Mostafa (2016) on constructs related to green consumption. A pilot test was done among 30 respondent consumers in Amazon coffee shops to eliminate the inaccurate responses on individual views and opinions. Inability to draw research samples and determination of sampling rate due to lack of data led to use of purposeful method of sample selection. The introduction paragraph is explaining the training and a convectional declaration of consent signed (Bui, 2017)

 Moreover, the second section gathered plaintiffs’ demographics such as sex, education, age and level of income. An individual’s understanding on coffee products such as ages consuming green coffee products or regular price for a cup of coffee. Additionally, the last part of the survey included objects to measure the psychographic factors on the scale of five-item Likert scale incorporated in previous research. Distribution of the research samples was in terms of age of the Amazon consumer population with access to internet. Regarding gender, women were more than men by 40% following a research by Zasuwa that confirmed women are responsible for purchasing food and consumer products for the household (J.A. Ottoman, 2016).

According to the survey, an illustration of 650 interviewed customers satisfies the expectations of the model choice used in the research and were selected for the Study. The mark populace of the research were customers that acknowledged their awareness in obtaining green goods. Therefore, the study comprised of 650 purchasers interested in buying green goods. Individual consumers above 18 years were targeted with the assumption that they were earning income and making independent and conscious decisions on green purchase. The benefits of online survey and marketing was relatively increased speed of data collection and low cost involved reducing the financial limitations of the research. The research was conducted between the December of 2017 and January 2019 (Gilg A., 2016).

Psychographic variables: Likert gauge arrays

VariableNumber of itemsSources
Environmental concern5Dunlap (2020)
Environmental information3(Dahlstrom, 2017)
Ecological insolence3(D. Zimon, 2020)
Alleged customer effectiveness3(Gilg A., 2016)
Doubt3(J.A. Ottoman, 2016)
Social Media effect3(Fischer E., 2016)
Individual rules3(J.A. Ottoman, 2016)
Demographic factors
CharacteristicsItemsPercentage of GPI
GenderFemale Male70% 30%
Age18-24 25-35 36-45 46-55 55 and more13% 30% 28% 17% 12%
Financial situationVery good Good Average Bad15% 49% 35% 2%
Education levelHigher Secondary Vocational and less61% 31% 8%
Number of children0 1 2 3-4 5 and more23% 1% 10% 47% 19%

Results

Research indicated that majority respondents purchased green products rarely and relatively by accident. Nonfood green products were bought less with low frequencies of more than once a month as acknowledged by 8% of the plaintiffs. Non -food foodstuffs included; green cosmetics and environmentally friendly detergents (Bryla, 2016).

Women were prone to recompense high charges for green goods than men due to their ability to recognize responsibility towards safeguarding the environment. Moreover, Women demonstrated added knowledge about green products. Difficulty and deficiency of time in finding products in the shop posed as a barrier to purchase intention as perceived by men and lesser in women.

Young individuals aged between eighteen to twenty-four years were less concerned on ecofriendly products and showed skepticism towards the impact of green products son environmental protection. The older generations were satisfied with the adoption of green products than young respondents from the questionnaires carried out. Research indicated an increase in pressure by friends and family among the older respondents towards purchase of green products. Young respondents perceived habits, limited availability and having no employment renders them as low-income individuals who are accessible to purchasing green products.

Older respondents aged between 45 years to 55 years appreciated the green products higher quality and perceived them as a sign of high social status and prestige. Additionally, older respondents produced green products or bought from reliable sources perceiving the high costs as a barrier to green purchase intention. Research indicated that better personal financial situation expressed an increase in intention to obtain green goods. therefore, the tendency to buy green products for higher prices and the limited availability did not pose as a barrier to green purchase intention. The older consumers articulated intents on acquiring green products inside trio months and purchasing green goods at sophisticated prices.

Individuals aged between thirty-six and forty-five years considered their knowledge good. Moreover, they acknowledged the dominance of their needs over the environmental need due to the belief that their needs were more relevant. Additionally, education was an insignificant factor influencing intentions of buying green product. Individuals who had better personal financial situations considered their knowledge to be good while those with poor financial situations perceived their knowledge as poor.

The relevance of the number of children in the household was considered to influence the frequency of purchase green products. Regular respondent results specified that families comprised of two children and above were suck with critical influence of purchasing green goods from dependable sources or producing their own products and foodstuffs.

Discussion

            Women displayed attitudes towards improvement of the environment and purchase of green goods more than men. Therefore, femininity is linked with environmental protection as a result more women are conscious of the presence of environmental movements promoted on social platforms. Study revealed a pessimistic view of young people towards green purchase intention regardless of studies showing as better educated than older people. Young people are inclined towards economic value when purchasing consumer products. Demographic factors influence barriers to acquiring green products. However, high educated individuals’ accessibility as a barrier in the purchase of green goods. Knowledge and awareness contribute to green products purchase intention although many individuals have no information on how to live sustainably through making ecologically conscious purchases. Therefore, improved consumer awareness on environmental knowledge will intensify customers’ intentions to purchase green products (Gilg A., 2016).

            Environmental attitude is influenced by environmental concern due to growing alertness of environmental difficulties as a result of human ignorance on environmentally friendly products. Consumers recognize their role towards environmental conservation, due to this, the level of green purchase intention increases (Mostafa, 2020). Better personal circumstances among consumers led to inclination towards purchase of green products due to their ability to afford greater quantity of green products at higher prices. Research by Jarczok-Guzy (2018) indicated that the average green consumer was well educated, earning regular income, middle-aged and awareness of the product’s quality and conditions in production. The awareness of green products was less compared to organic food according to Witek (2017).

Conclusion

            This paper was formed over the concept of existing literature gap in regard to examining psychographic and demographic factors affecting coffee shop purchase intention. It embraced the relationship between moderating democratic factors towards psychographic factors and the green purchasing intention. The study deduced that environmental attitude, social influence and personal norms contribute to an increase in purchase of coffee shop green products. The main influence when making green purchase decision is the environmental impact of non-green products therefore, a need to use green products to prevent environmental harm. In addition, skepticism, supposed consumer efficiency and ecological apprehension have no significant outcome on purchase intent. Moreover, this study indicated the absence of the effects of basic environmental knowledge on the improvement on eco-friendly conscious decisions toward green purchase intention. Psychographic factors in this study provided accurate prediction patterns in consumer purchase intention than demographic factors as shown by (Roberts, 2016).

            Coffee shops should target young consumers in their marketing strategies due to their higher knowledge on environmental conservation and the ability to influence their family members purchase intentions. Young customers comprise of an important collection of customers that require special consideration therefore, this postures a test to green marketing. Nevertheless, young consumers involve themselves in consumption, springing pleasure and satisfaction thus treating it as entertaining, despite the awareness of the critical world around them. In addition, young people are skilled in the use of social media offering purchasing power in the future and formation of early ecological habits. Therefore, young consumers adopt and accept new innovations and products quicker than the old consumers thus offering a significant marketing gap to be exploited by coffee shops in marketing their green products.

Younger interviewees considered scarceness and quality as pointers of legitimacy, while older respondents considered brand and type of vendor (Bryla, 2016). If companies effectively persuade young customers on the importance of green good in their marketing communication strategy therefore, barriers of green purchase intention will be eliminated. Therefore, the study suggests that for consumers with very low incomes, consideration can be applied to the presentation of green goods. These findings provide the coffee shops with distinct perspectives for better marketing and prediction of green purchase intention among consumers depending on psychographic factors.

Recommendations, Limitations and Future Research

            Consumers’ environmental attitude contributes to increased motive towards buying green product. Consumers’ decisions are affected by the beliefs and opinions of other individuals in the society. Therefore, coffee shops should create marketing campaigns through use of social media and green programs as effective communication tools to promote environmental consciousness and market green products to customers. However, some studies imply that cultural and psychographic factors amount to a better insight towards GPI (Mas’od A., 2017).

            The study does not identify the association between psychographic issues and demographic factors therefore future investigation should comprise relationship between these factors to expand the green purchase intention knowledge. Additionally, new sociodemographic factors such as profession, marital and social status should be researched in the future to contribute to effective expansion of marketing actions and green purchase.

References

Boztepe, A. (2020). Green marketing and its impact on consumer buying behavior. Eur. J. Econ. Political Stud, 5-21.

Bryla, P. (2016). Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers. Appetite, 737-746.

Bui, M. (2017). Environmental marketing: a model of consumer behavior. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Collegiate Marketing Educators, 22-28.

D. Zimon, P. M. (2020). Development of Key Processes along the Supply Chain by Implementing the ISO 22000. Sustainability, 6179.

Dahlstrom, R. (2017). Green Marketing Management. Florence, USA: Cengage Learning, Inc.

Fischer E., A. S. (2016). Sex, Gender, Identity, Gender Role Attitudes, and Consumer Behavior. Psychol. Mark, 163-183.

Gilg A., B. S. (2016). Green consumption or sustainable lifestyles? Identifying the sustainable consumer. Futures, 481-504.

J. Rokka, L. U. (2016). Preference for green packaging in consumer product choices–do consumer’s care? Int. J. Consum. Stud, 516-525.

J.A. Ottoman, W. R. (2016). Green Marketing: Opportunity for Innovation. New York, USA: McGraw Hill.

Khan S.N., M. M. (2017). The power of emotional value: exploring the effects of values on green product consumer choice behavior. Journal of Cleaner Production, 65-74.

Lucyna Witek, W. K. (2021). Green Purchase Behavior: The Effectiveness Of Sociosemographic Variables for Explaining Green Purchase in Emerging Market. Sustainability , 209.

M. Laroche, B. J.-F. (2017). Targeting consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 503-520.

M. Laroche, R. T. (2016). The influence of culture on pro-environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors: a Canadian perspective. Advances in Consumer Research, 196-202.

Mas’od A., C. T. (2017). . Determining Socio-Demographic, Psychographic and Religiosity of Green Hotel Consumer in Malaysia. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci., 479-489.

Mostafa, M. (2020). A hierarchical analysis of the green consciousness of the Egyptian consumer. Psychology and Marketing, 444-473.

Moussaïd M., K. J. (2016). Social influence and the collective dynamics of opinion formation. PLoS ONE, 1-8.

Nath V., K. R. (2016). ‘Consumer adoption of green products: modeling the enables. Global Business Review, 453-470.

Onel, N. (2017). Pro-environmental purchasing behavior of consumers. Social Marketing Quarterly, 103-121.

P.P. Rogers, K. J. (2008). An Intorduction to Sustainable Development (1st ed.). London, UK: Earthscan.

Roberts, J. (2016). Green consumers in the 2016s: profile and implications for advertising. Journal of Business Research, 217-231.

S. Kushwah, A. D. (2019). Understanding Consumer Resistance to the Consumption of Organic Food. A Study of Ethical Consumption, Purchasing, and Choice Behaviour. Food Quality and Preference, 77, 1-14.

S. Punitha, A. A. (2018). Antecedents of green purchasing behaviour among Malaysian consumers. International Business Management, 129-139.

S. Segev, J. F. (2016). Is your product really green? A content analysis to reassess green advertising. Journal of Advertising, 85-93.

S.K. Goh, B. M. (2016). Linking green skepticism to green purchase behavior. Journal of cleaner Production, 629-638.

Schwartz, S. (2017). Normative explanations of helping behavior: a critique, proposal, and empirical test. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 349-364.

Suki, N. (2017). Green awareness effects on consumers’ purchasing decision: some insights from Malaysia. International Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies, 49-63.

Taufique, K. &. (2017). The Influence of Eco-Label Knowledge and Trust on Pro-Environmental Consumer Behavior in an Emerging Market. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 511-529.