Clinical Nutrition



“Example” Bob typically eats dinner (a mixed meal with all types of macronutrients) in the evening at about 8:00pm; he does not snack before bedtime. Then, Bob usually wakes up at about 7:00am and eats his usual breakfast (a bagel with regular cream cheese, plus coffee with cream and sugar) shortly thereafter.

Describe what you would expect to see happen to the levels of

(a) Glucose
(b) Chylomicrons
(c) non-esterified fatty acids

In Bob’s blood when he wakes up at 7:00am and for the ~3 hours following his breakfast (assuming he eats nothing else during this time).  Include a description of the major signaling mechanisms that operate in the body to cause any changes you have predicted in the circulating levels of these nutrients.  (You can assume that Bob is generally healthy, without any metabolic diseases.)

A molecule of oleic acid (a 18 carbon monounsaturated fat) from the avocado in Bob’s dinner has entered the energy metabolism pathway in one of his muscle cells, and it is being catabolized to produce ATP.

The oleic acid has already been activated by the addition of a Coenzyme A (CoA), and this activated molecule has been transferred into the mitochondrial matrix by the carnitine shuttle.   What is the name of the next step in the breakdown of oleic acid, and what is produced during this step?

Define deamination, and briefly explain its relevance to energy metabolism. 

You have studied “energy metabolism pathways” of all three major classes of macronutrients in the human body, and some factors that influence when and where each macronutrient is metabolized in the body.  Based on these topic from Week 10 slides,

Describe one concept that you have learned this week. Include a description of the pieces of information that you needed to connect in order to understand the full concept.